This flow of deep water is formed as surface waters in the region cool, releasing heat to the atmosphere, becoming colder and denser. “Where and how dense water is formed in the Nordic Seas is likely to change in a warming climate,” said Huang. “These two studies fundamentally advance our understanding of the origin and pathways of the densest overflow water supplying the deep limb of the AMOC,” said WHOI physical oceanographer Robert Pickart, who is second author on both papers. Funding for these studies was provided by the US National Science Foundation under grants OCE-1558742, OCE-1259618, OCE-1558742, and OCE-1259618. We play a leading role in ocean observation, and operate the most extensive suite of data-gathering platforms in the world.