Read: Penguins were a lonely explorer’s best friendsThough dominant winds can appear to push a huddle of penguins along the ice, the truth is more nuanced. Penguins in the huddle’s center, where temperatures can reach a sweltering 100 degrees Fahrenheit, mostly stand still. A bird who finds himself on the huddle’s windward side is soon driven to relocate to its warmer leeward side. As more birds leave the windward side, penguins in the center soon find themselves exposed. Work from this observatory supplements observations by onsite researchers and has allowed Zitterbart’s team to develop mathematical models that accurately forecast penguin huddles.