Their work proposed that emperor penguins be listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and this week, USFWS submitted that listing proposal. The novel results described in the paper also have important implications for assessing climate change risks to other species. Emperor penguins live in the icy coastal regions of Antarctica, but current climate models project significant declines in Antarctic Sea ice to which the emperor penguins’ life cycle is closely tied. “Emperor penguins live in a delicate balance with their environment, there is a sea ice ‘Goldilocks’ zone”, said Jenouvrier. “The future of this iconic species depends on immediate actions to decarbonize society and increased protections for species endangered by climate change.