In the span of a single year, the region’s renowned kelp forests almost completely collapsed, and they are still struggling. The map above, based on data from McPherson and colleagues, shows the location of bull kelp forests in 2008 and 2019. The combination helps make some kelp forests visible from space. The loss of bull kelp forests has meant the loss of the ecosystem services they rendered. The collapse of Northern California’s kelp forests was quick and nearly total.