For its part, the company has trialled small-scale seaweed farms in Denmark, France, Scotland, Sweden, Morocco, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and more. As Martínez highlights, AtSeaNova’s substrates are critical, but are just one part of its ‘turnkey’ seaweed farms. However, instead of bringing the nutrients to the seaweed, this company is taking the seaweed – in this case, giant kelp – to the nutrients. Given this, Fischell and colleagues have been developing autonomous underwater observation systems for monitoring large-scale seaweed farms with minimal human intervention. To cater for future seaweed farms, both Snoopy and Darter have had facelifts.