Since the city’s early days, flooding has been a problem because Jakarta is situated along several low-lying rivers that swell during the monsoon season. Since 1990, major floods have happened every few years in Jakarta, with tens of thousands of people often displaced. Since the first image above was captured in 1990, artificial land and new development has spread into the shallow waters of Jakarta Bay. Satellites and ground-based sensors have recorded parts of North Jakarta subsiding by dozens of millimeters per year. A key initiative was the construction of a giant seawall and 17 new artificial islands around Jakarta Bay.